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This is further clarified by noting that eighteen countries are mentioned in early Tamil literature, clearly distinguishing "cinkalam" from "Tamlaak(h)am", viz., cimkaḷam, conaakam, cā vakam, cīṉam, tuḷuvam, kutakam, konkanam, kanna-tam, kollam, telin(g)kam, kalin(g)kam, vaṅkam, kaṅ- kam, makatam, kaṭāram, kavuṭam, koklam, tamilakam; சிங்களம், சோனகம், சாவகம், சீனம், துளுவம், குடகம், கொங் ;கணம், கன்னடம், கொல்லம், தெலிங்கம், கலிங்கம், ;வ ங்கம், கங்கம், மகதம், கடாரம், கவுடம், கோசலம், தமிழகம்.The early Pali writings of Sri Lanka also mention similar names for kingdoms located in the subcontinent.The name "Sinhalé" was used when Kandasamy was crowned "Sri Wikrama Rajasinghe".The 1815 treaty between the English and the `Adigars' of the Kandyian kingdom use the name Sinhalé therein.However, the name Salaka was also used in Greek, at the time.`Taprobane' is believed to be derived from `Tambapanni', a name allegedly given to the island by Founder-Prince, Vijaya, because of the golden brown sands of the coast near Mannar (Manthota) where he landed.The name Taprobana is attributed to Megasthenes in the 4th century BCE.Ptolemy's map used the name Taprobane, establishing that in the 1st-2nd century CE the country was known to the West as Taprobane.

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Arab traders (circa 7th century) used the name Serendib.

The Dutch replaced the Portuguese as the Colonial power, due to events in Europe and as a consequence of treaties made by the Sinhalese king who hoped to use the Dutch to displace the Portuguese.

The Dutch did not honour the treaties, tricked the king and in their hay day ruled most of the maritime provinces of Sri Lanka.

The British signed a treaty with the Kandyan Adigars (minsters) handing over Sinhalé to the British in return for their guaranteeing various rights including the primacy of Buddhism.

It soon became evident that the "Kandyan convention" was a sham which was not being respected by the British.

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